by Neve Gordon
As a reprisal for last week's Islamic Jihad fatal suicide attack that left 17 Israelis dead and many more wounded, Israeli troops charged Yasser Arafat's headquarters. Armored bulldozers stormed into the compound, flattening whole buildings, including several intelligence and military barracks, a jail, and the offices of the local governor.
In the past months, the employment of Caterpillar D9 bulldozers as a military weapon has become widespread. In the Jenin refugee camp, at least 140 of the camp's buildings were completely leveled, while over 200 others were severely damaged, leaving an estimated 4,000 people, more than a quarter of the refugee population, homeless.
Thirty-seven-year-old Jamal Fayid, paralyzed from his waist down, was one of the D9 casualties. According to Human Rights Watch, he was crushed in his home because Israeli soldiers did not allow family members to take him out. The Caterpillar killed him.
D9s were put to use in other places as well. In a report published by the Israeli rights group, B'tselem, one reads how Caterpillars were employed to destroy houses in Nablus's old city in order to make way for Israeli tanks. When the military left the neighborhood six days later, Palestinians discovered that ten residents had been inside one of the houses when the demolition took place. 65-year-old Abdallah a-Sha'abi was rescued together with his 53-year-old wife; the rest were not so lucky.
Israel's demolition policy was not, however, invented in the operation dubbed "Defensive Shield." Less than four months before the Jenin attack, some 58 houses were destroyed in Rafah, rendering at least 500 people homeless in the midst of a cold winter -- 300 of whom are children.
The razing of houses in the past months, while unusual in its scale, is part of a long-term low-intensity warfare tactic that often escapes public attention. According to Jeff Halper, from the Israeli Committee Against House Demolitions, "more than 7,000 houses have been demolished by Israel since 1967, leaving tens of thousands of Palestinians traumatized and homeless."
The Israeli government and military is, to be sure, responsible for the demolitions, which are -- according to today's international legal framework -- in many cases considered war crimes. However, without the big D9 bulldozers supplied by Caterpillar, it would have been very difficult to destroy the houses.
When Caterpillar began doing business with Israel, it could not have known that its products -- which are manufactured for civilian use -- would be employed to commit war crimes. Now, however, the corporation does know and insofar as it maintains a business as usual stance, it too is implicated in the violations.
It is interesting to note that the Israeli Supreme Court might very well agree with this assessment. In their sentencing of the Nazi-criminal, Adolf Eichmann, the Supreme Court Judges stated that "the extent to which any one of the many criminals was close to or remote from the actual killer of the victim means nothing, as far as the measure of responsibility is concerned. On the contrary, in general the degree of responsibility increases as we draw further away from the man who uses the fatal instrument with his own hands."
This truism gains new meaning in the age of globalization. Decisions made in one part of the world frequently affect another, and the process of identifying those responsible has become more complicated. The identity of violators does not only include state actors, like Eichmann, but also corporations, international financial institutions, and individuals. Finally, responsibility is not limited to those determining the policy, giving the orders, or carrying out the act, but extends to those who supply the perpetrators with the instruments of destruction.
Caterpillar should not necessarily stop all transactions with Israel, but it must introduce a new clause in its contracts to ensure that products are not employed to perpetrate human rights violations. Globalization offers new opportunities for corporations like Caterpillar, but these opportunities must have a price as well -- the expansion of responsibility. A legal framework that calls attention to this type of responsibility is currently being developed, and while it remains difficult to enforce, the day will come when CEOs will stand trial for their support of and collaboration in war crimes.
* For information on how to contact Caterpillar to protest the use of their equipment by Israel as what the IDF's Chief of Staff calls a "strategic weapon" against the Palestinians: http://boycottisraeligoods.org/index.php
Neve Gordon teaches politics at Ben-Gurion University. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org